Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people. They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.
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Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time. The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.
Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth.
Because most fossils are found in rock strata, the method for dating them is the same–measuring the amount of decay of an isotope.
The great flood in the history of geology[ edit ] Animals boarding Noah’s ark Edward Hicks painting Main article: History of geology In pre-Christian times, fossils found on land were thought by Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes , Xanthus and Aristotle , to be evidence that the sea had in past ages covered the land. Their concept of vast time periods in an eternal cosmos was rejected by early Christian writers as incompatible with their belief in Creation by God.
Among the church fathers, Tertullian spoke of fossils demonstrating that mountains had been overrun by water without explicitly saying when. Chrysostom and Augustine believed that fossils were the remains of animals that were killed and buried during the brief duration of the Biblical Genesis Flood , and later Martin Luther viewed fossils as having resulted from the Flood.
In Bernard Palissy speculated that fossils had formed in lakes, and natural historians subsequently disputed the alternatives. Robert Hooke made empirical investigations, and doubted that the numbers of fossil shells or depth of shell beds could have formed in the one year of Noah’s Flood. In Nicolas Steno showed how chemical processes changed organic remains into stone fossils.
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.
Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts’ book Social Science History and to other resources.
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias.
To keep from making claims that someone could refute later. Even though there are a great number of claims in books and on the Internet, we could find no scientific, testable facts that support the theory of evolution.
Why are older fossils generally in deeper rock layers than younger fossils? According to the principle of superposition, it would be the uppermost layers that are the youngest, and therefore would have the most modern fossils. What do you know about a rock layer found on a mountain if you find a seashell fossil in the layer? If you find a seashell fossil in a rock layer on a mountain, than you know that the rock layer was formed at a time when that area was submerged under water.
Scientists use two kinds of dating techniques to work out the age of rocks and fossils. The first method is called relative dating. This considers the positions of the different rocks in sequence (in relation to each other) and the different types of fossil that are found in them.
Introduction We have seen that archeology and natural science tend to verify the Bible. However, the evidence from these is merely supportive, and not proof. The real evidence that the Bible is the word of God must be internal. Why must proof that the Bible is the word of God be internal? It is clear, upon reflection, that it would be possible for a human being to write a book without error. The test of the accuracy of such a book would be to compare it to reality.
For example, if a book states that water boils at F.
What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record.
For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life.
A message from the author. Dear Reader, This Bible study is the first in a series designed to teach you the basics of the New Testament. It is our prayer that it will accomplish its purpose.
Artichokes Food historians confirm artichokes descended from their wild cousins cardoons. While the wild variety was consumed in ancient times, modern artichokes, as we know them today, first surface during the Medieval ages. These “Old World” vegetables were introduced to America by European settlers. Jerusalem artichokes , a “New World” food related to sunflowers, are a completely unrelated vegetable.
Chinese artichokes aka Japanese artichokes are completely unrelated. What are artichokes and how long have we been eating them? This is fortunate, because there is confusion enough created by the numerous varities of the globe artichoke grown around the world. The artichoke appears to have originated in North Africa where it still exists in a wild state.
Environmental Awareness – Naturalist Intelligence
Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business.
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Etymology[ edit ] The taxonomic term Bivalvia was first used by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in to refer to animals having shells composed of two valves. The name “bivalve” is derived from the Latin bis, meaning “two”, and valvae, meaning “leaves of a door”. Some, such as the cockles , have shells that are nearly globular; cockles can jump by bending and straightening their foot.
Others, such as the razor clams , are burrowing specialists with elongated shells and a powerful foot adapted for rapid digging. The shipworms , in the family Teredinidae have greatly elongated bodies, but their shell valves are much reduced and restricted to the anterior end of the body, where they function as scraping organs that permit the animal to dig tunnels through wood. Bivalve shell Near the hinge of the shell is the umbo , often a rounded, knob-like protuberance usually surrounding the beak.